NOTICIAS ACTUALES SOBRE EL AMBIENTE

Following the lizard lung labyrinth

Birds and mammals are on extreme ends of the airflow spectrum. Mammals inhale oxygen-rich air and they exhale depleted air, exhibiting a so-called tidal flow pattern. In contrast, bird breath travels tidally through part of the respiratory system, but in a one-way loop throughout most of the lung. Biologists have discovered that Savannah monitor lizards have lung structures that are hybrid system of bird and mammal lungs.

14.Dic.2019


Mitochondria are the 'canary in the coal mine' for cellular stress

Mitochondria, tiny structures present in most cells, are known for their energy-generating machinery. Now, researchers have discovered a new function of mitochondria: they set off molecular alarms when cells are exposed to stress or chemicals that can damage DNA, such as chemotherapy. The results could lead to new cancer treatments that prevent tumors from becoming resistant to chemotherapy.

14.Dic.2019


Unearthing the mystery of the meaning of Easter Island's Moai

Based on a 5-year excavation of two Moai found within the Easter Island quarry called Rano Raraku, the Easter Island Statue Project released the first definitive study to reveal the quarry as a complex landscape and link soil fertility, agriculture, quarrying and the sacred nature of the Moai. Chemistry testing suggests the soil in the quarry itself was made more fertile by the act of quarrying, with traces of taro, banana and sweet potato in the area.

13.Dic.2019


Why are giant pandas born so tiny?

Born pink, blind, and helpless, giant pandas typically weigh about 100 grams at birth -- the equivalent of a stick of butter. Their mothers are 900 times more massive than that. That raises a question that has vexed biologists: why the disparity? No one knows the answer, but by comparing bone growth across newborn bears, dogs and other animals, scientists find that one idea doesn't hold up.

13.Dic.2019


Breakthrough in Zika virus vaccine

Researchers have made significant advances in developing a novel vaccine against Zika virus, which could potentially lead to global elimination of the disease.

13.Dic.2019


Perinatal exposure to flame retardant alters epigenome, predisposing metabolic disease

A new study showed that environmentally relevant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), a brominated flame retardant, through the umbilical cord and breast milk permanently changed liver metabolism in rats.

13.Dic.2019


Synthetic nanopores made from DNA

A scientific collaboration has resulted in the construction of a synthetic DNA nanopore capable of selectively translocating protein-size macromolecules across lipid bilayers.

13.Dic.2019


Moongoose females compete over reproduction

A new study on wild banded mongooses reveals that females may use spontaneous abortion to cope with reproductive competition, and to save their energy for future breeding attempts in better conditions.

13.Dic.2019


Researchers reconstruct spoken words as processed in nonhuman primate brains

Using a brain-computer interface, a team of researchers has reconstructed English words from the brain activity of rhesus macaques that listened as the words were spoken.

13.Dic.2019


Finding a killer electron hot spot in Earth's Van Allen radiation belts

JAXA and NASA satellite observations show where killer electrons are generated in the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth.

13.Dic.2019


Human teeth used as jewellery in Turkey 8,500 years ago

At a prehistoric archaeological site in Turkey, researchers have discovered two 8,500-year-old human teeth, which had been used as pendants in a necklace or bracelet. Researchers have never documented this practice before in the prehistoric Near East, and the rarity of the find suggests that the human teeth were imbued with profound symbolic meaning for the people who wore them.

13.Dic.2019


Barrels of ancient Antarctic air aim to track history of rare gas

An Antarctic field campaign last winter led by the US and Australia has successfully extracted some of the largest samples of air dating from the 1870s until today. Researchers will use the samples to look for changes in the molecules that scrub the atmosphere of methane and other gases.

13.Dic.2019


Salmon lose diversity in managed rivers, reducing resilience to environmental change

The manipulation of rivers in California is jeopardizing the resilience of native Chinook salmon. It compresses their migration timing to the point that they crowd their habitats. They may miss the best window for entering the ocean and growing into adults, new research shows.

13.Dic.2019


Rectal microbes influence effectiveness of HIV vaccine

Microbes living in the rectum could make a difference to the effectiveness of experimental HIV vaccines, according to researchers.

13.Dic.2019


Canadian tundra formerly covered in rich forest: Ancient plant fossil record shows

Canada's northernmost islands, Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg islands in Nunavut, were home to a vibrant, temperate forest 56 million years ago, according to fossil research.

12.Dic.2019


Climate cycles and insect pests drive migration timing of reindeer's North American cousin

Biologists have discovered two unexpected drivers for migration timing that dispute long-held assumptions and provide insight into potential future effects of climate change on caribou. First, the start of migration is synchronized across North America and tied to large-scale, ocean-driven climate cycles. Second, warm, windless summers that favored insect pests lead to poorer maternal health and delayed arrivals at the calving grounds the following spring.

12.Dic.2019


When flowers reached Australia

University of Melbourne research has established when and where flowering plants first took a foothold.

12.Dic.2019


Deadly 'superbugs' destroyed by molecular drills

Motorized molecules activated by light target and drill through highly antibiotic resistant bacteria and kill them within minutes. The molecules can open bacteria to attack by drugs they previously resisted. The strategy could be applied to bacterial infections or diseases on the skin, in the lungs or in the gastrointestinal tract.

12.Dic.2019


Ocean microbes: Novel study underscores microbial individuality

A single drop of seawater can contain a wide representation of ocean microbes from around the world -- revealing novel insights into the ecology, evolution and biotechnology potential of the global microbiome.

12.Dic.2019


Tiny insects become 'visible' to bats when they swarm

Small insects that would normally be undetectable to bats using echolocation suddenly become detectable when they occur in large swarms.

12.Dic.2019


For controlling tsetse flies, fabric color matters

Researchers report that they have engineered an improved colored fabric for the insecticide-treated targets used to control tsetse, based on an understanding of how flies see color.

12.Dic.2019


New drug targets to treat Nipah virus

Nipah virus, which is transmitted to humans from bats and pigs, has a high mortality rate and there are no licensed drugs against it. Now, researchers have used information on the structure of the Nipah virus to identified 150 possible inhibitors of the virus.

12.Dic.2019


The limits of ocean heavyweights: Prey curb whales' gigantic size

Scientists collected data from hundreds of feeding whales, allowing them to determine how much energy species of different sizes invest to capture their prey and which of these species reap the greatest rewards for their efforts. Their findings reveal that body size in all whales is limited by the availability of their prey, but only filter-feeding whales have evolved a feeding strategy that drives them to achieve the largest body sizes to have ever evolved.

12.Dic.2019


Transformative change can save humans and nature

Human impacts on life on Earth are unprecedented, requiring transformative action to address root economic, social and technological causes.

12.Dic.2019


Researchers perfect nanoscience tool for studies of nuclear waste storage

Studying radiation chemistry and electronic structure of materials at scales smaller than nanometers, scientists prepared samples of clay in ultra-thin layers. Working at the TRIUMF particle accelerator, they bombarded the samples with antimatter subatomic particles. They found their system is a proven tool for radiation studies of material to be used to store nuclear waste -- important for Canadian nuclear industry looking to build its first geological repository.

12.Dic.2019